The veins main role is to return blood flow back to the heart using muscles in the leg and feet along with one-way valves that prevent backflow due to gravity. Failure or weakening of the vein valves can lead to flow reversal that results in pooling of blood in the legs. Certain risk factors that may lead to CVI include:
Vascular ultrasound is used to exclude a blood clot and identify if incompetent valves are present leading to venous reflux or insufficiency.
CVI can be treated if diagnosed in the early stages. Strategies include:
For more severe cases, particularly involving skin integrity and life-limiting symptoms, advanced therapies include: